Cortez History

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Vista Heights Middle School

 

Study Guide - The Colonization of America


Free Study Guide Answers:


5) As a soldier, Captain John Smith brought order, structure, and a strong work ethic to the Jamestown settlement in Virginia.  He forced the settlers to farm and build sturdy homes, among other things.  Tobacco became a "cash crop" and made the Virginia colony rich andsignificant, thus attracting more settlers and keeping them prosperous.


6) In addition to slavery, the colonies employed a system of indentured servitude. Under this system, poor Europeans could secure passage to the colonies if they agreed to work for a number of years on a plantation. These indentured servants often worked for years in miserable conditions to secure their freedom.


9) When the Pilgrims landed in 1620, they drafted the Mayflower Compact, a document that established Plimouth Plantation as a "civil body politic," under the sovereignty of King James I of England. Every man was required to sign it. More powerful in many ways than the House of Burgesses, the Mayflower Compact set up what some consider America's first true self-government (except for the self-governing Native Americans).

 

10) They were called "Separatists" because they wanted to separate from the Church of England. 


12) William Bradford wrote "Of Plimoth Plantation"


14) a government where the people rule (through voting)


20) a written plan of government


25) Plymouth, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut (Plymouth later becomes part of Massachusetts)





Study Guide - The Critical Period and Constitution 


1.  What was the first constitution of the United States called?

The Articles of Confederation


3.  How would you describe the Critical Period?  When was it?

The Critical Period was the time period after the Revolutionary War, when the US constitution was the Articles of Confederation. The Critical Period ended in 1789, when the new US Constitution was ratified. The Critical Period was a time filled with problems, mostly due to the fact that the national government was weak, and the states had too much power.


8. Who was the president of the Constitutional Convention? 

George Washington



10.  What was the Great Compromise? (pgs 231-232)

Roger Sherman's "Great Compromise" (also called the Connecticut Compromise) solved the issue regarding representation in Congress.  It created a bicameral legislature - a Senate and a House of Representation.  Delegates to the Senate would be based on equal representation, each state sending two.  The number of members sent by each state to the House would be based on population.


11. What did the Three-Fifths Compromise accomplish?

it allowed Southern states to count slaves when determining population... five slaves would be counted as three free persons


13.  Who were the famous Federalists?  Anti-Federalists?

Federalists:  Washington, J. Adams, Madison, Franklin, Jay.     Anti-Feds: Jefferson, S. Adams, Patrick Henry  


15.  What is a republic? (pg 222; 245)

A government where the people elect their representatives, and which is governed by the rule of law.


16. What is federalism?

it is the division of power between the states and the national government.  (look in your foldable for a better answer)


17. What is "popular sovereignty"?

a fancy way of saying:  Let the people VOTE to decide political issues


18.  What does "democracy" mean?

A government where the people rule.



23. What branch of government does Article I discuss?  Article II?  Article  III?

Article I = Legislative (Congress);   Article II = Executive (President);   Article III = Judicial (courts)


25.  What are delegated powers?

powers/responsibilities given directly to the NATIONAL govt in the Constitution.  An example would be declaring war.


26.  What are reserved powers?

powers NOT given to the National govt are RESERVED to the states.  An example would be public schooling



28.  What is the introduction to the Constitution called?  What are the famous first three words?

The Preamble.  "We the people..."


29.  What are the six things that the Founders believed our government was built to do?

-form a more perfect union

-establish justice

-insure domestic tranquility

-provide for the common defense

-promote the general welfare

-secure the blessings of liberty



30.  What nation’s Parliament was the model for our Congress?

England


31.  How many members are in the House of Representatives today?  The Senate?

House - 435 Congressmen;    Senate - 100 Senators


32.  How long is the term of a House member?  A Senator?

House members serve 2 year terms;    A Senator serves 6 year terms


33.  How many members does each state send to the Senate?  The House?

For the Senate, each state sends two elected members.   For the House, it depends on the population.


34.  Where does the Congress meet?

the Capitol Building


36.  How do we elect a president in the US?

through the Electoral College.  The EC elects the president after the people vote.


37.  What are the various "hats" (roles) that our presidents wear?

-Chief Executive

-Commander-in-Chief

-Head of State

-Head of Party


38.  How long does a president's term last?  How many terms can he be elected to?

four years.  twice


39.  How does the president "check" the power of Congress?

He can VETO bills passed by Congress.


41.  What are members of the US Supreme Court called?

justices


42. What is the most important power of the Supreme Court?  Why?

judicial review.  this allows the courts to overturn laws passed by Congress.


44.  What is an amendment?

a change or addition to the Constitution





 

Study Guide - The American Revolution



2.  George Washington gained valuable experience;  the colonists saw that they could fight as well as the British;  France was booted from North America.


3.  Franklin was encouraging the colonies to unite to fight the French, or else risk being conquered.


17.  It was the first shot fired at Lexington on April 19, 1775.  It started the Revolutionary War.


23. Guerilla warfare refers to quick hit-and-run tactics used during war. 


24.  "Common Sense" inspired many Americans to become patriots, and support the war effort.


25.  The Dec. of Ind. was written by Thomas Jefferson and declared to the world why the colonies had broken away from England.  It has many memorable lines, including: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."


29.  The Battle of Yorktown


35.  Leader of the Sons of Liberty; pushed for American independence; led the Boston Tea Party; member of the Continental Congress; known as "The Father of the Revolution"


38.  Arnold was a tremendous soldier and general of the Continental Army and helped win the Battles of Saratoga.  He later became a traitor, but his plan to deliver West Point to the British was foiled. 


43.  James Otis


45.  Paul Revere


49.  Nathan Hale


50.  John Paul Jones